EQ-2021-000116-HTI – Earthquake
EP-2022-000325-HTI – Cholera
This revised Emergency Appeal seeks a total of 5.8 million Swiss francs (the existing funding gap) to support the Haitian Red Cross Society (HRCS) in assisting the people affected by the 14 August 2021 earthquake and the ongoing cholera outbreak in Haiti. The overall funding requirement remains CHF 19.2 million, but (1) additional geographical areas are included, (2) the number of people to be assisted has increased to 45,100 and (3) the implementation period has been extended to 28 months (until 31 December 2023). In addition, new Health, WASH and CEA activities have been included to control the cholera outbreak and prevent further infections.
After the end of the Emergency Appeal timeframe, response activities will continue under the IFRC Country Plan, which will show a holistic view of ongoing emergency response and longer-term programming tailored to the needs of the country, as well as a Federation-wide view of the country’s action. This process aims to streamline activities under one plan while still ensuring the needs of those affected by the crisis are met.
On 14 August 2021, a 7.2 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti causing 2,248 deaths and injuring 12,763 people. The earthquake destroyed 53,815 homes and a further 83,770 were damaged. The total area affected covers 500 square kilometres and over 800,000 people have been directly affected. Of 159 health facilities assessed, 28 have been severely damaged and 60 more have been damaged, with 456 schools impacted and 64 destroyed. Total economic damage and losses are estimated at USD 1.6 billion, or about 10 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP). Haiti already has a deteriorating humanitarian situation with high levels of insecurity, violence, food scarcity, internally displaced people and significant population movement, and these are compounded by the current crises.
Cholera also re-emerged in the country on 2 October 2022 after more than three years with no presence of the disease reported. The national authorities reported two confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae O1 in the greater Portau-Prince area and in the commune of Cité Soleil. As of 30 November, more than 12,541 suspect cases had been reported by the Ministère de la Sante Publique et de la Population (MSPP), with 1,110 cases confirmed and 233 deaths. Capacity of the epidemiological surveillance system to detect suspected cases is still considered low and confirmation of cases is minimal, due to scant resources and the difficulty in getting samples to labs due to lack of fuel and presence of roadblocks by armed gangs.
It is currently estimated that 35 per cent of the population in Haiti lacks access to safe water and up to 65 per cent have either inadequate sanitation or none at all; only 22.4 per cent of people have access to handwashing areas with clean water and soap and up to 25 per cent of the urban population and 36 per cent of the rural population practice open defecation. 4 And this is higher in certain areas, aggravated by the deteriorating socioeconomic situation and increases in gang violence . Access to the fuel necessary for the maintenance of essential services such as drinking water, particularly in urban areas, has become particularly precarious, threatening explosive transmission of cholera. Sixty-six per cent of the urban population lives in suburbs without access to adequate residential services. Haiti already has the worst health indicators in the Latin America and the Caribbean region and has some of the highest morbidity and mortality rates in the world, while overall access to health services remains poor.
It is currently estimated that over 3 million people in Haiti are facing exacerbated humanitarian needs from protracted armed violence, civil unrest, and the resurgence of cholera5 . Gun battles among gangs, or between police forces and gangs, are on the rise and this armed violence deters people from seeking food or is preventing access to medical treatment. When people move around, for any reason, the risk of being harmed is very high.
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